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In this study we examined the differences in implicit collective self-esteem between Gelao and Han teenagers, using the Implicit Association Test. We also explored the relationship between participants’ implicit and explicit collective self-esteem with the Implicit Association Test and the Explicit Collective Self-Esteem Scale. Participants were 169 teenagers residing in Gelao regions in China. The results showed that both Gelao and Han participants had an implicit collective self-esteem effect (i.e., tended to associate their own ethnic group with positive words and the other ethnic group with negative words), and this effect was significantly higher among Gelao than among Han participants. Further, scores on the importance-to-identity subscale of the Explicit Collective Self-Esteem scale were significantly higher in the Gelao versus the Han group. The correlation coefficients between implicit and explicit collective self-esteem for both groups were very low. The significance of the study findings is discussed.