Measuring military identity: Scale development and psychometric evaluations

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Rino Bandlitz Johansen
Jon Christian Laberg
Monica Martinussen
Cite this article:  Johansen, R., Laberg, J., & Martinussen, M. (2013). Measuring military identity: Scale development and psychometric evaluations. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 41(5), 861-880.


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Our purpose was to perform a psychometric evaluation of a new 33-item questionnaire developed in Norway. To evaluate it we assessed its internal consistency, performed an exploratory factor analysis, and investigated aspects of construct validity. We also examined test-retest reliability. A second purpose was to investigate whether or not individual level variables such as age, gender, or service were related to different military identities. In Study 1 we collected cross-sectional data from military personnel in the Norwegian Armed Forces (N = 317). In Study 2 we collected longitudinal data from students undertaking junior officer education (N = 238). We identified a 3-factor structure, comprising professionalism, individualism, and idealism. Internal consistency for the 3 subscales was acceptable (α = .60–.83). Test-retest reliability and construct validity were supported. We found professionalism to be significantly higher in the Army as compared to in the Navy and Air Force. We did not detect gender differences in terms of military identities, but we did detect small negative correlations between age and professionalism and between age and idealism.

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