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This study elicited salient Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) beliefs about physical activity among adolescents (Study 1) and then used these beliefs to evaluate gender differences in intention and behavior (Study 2). Study 1 was conducted with a sample (N = 25) of Canadian adolescents, followed by Study 2 (N = 157) where participants completed measures of intention, behavioral, normative, and control beliefs and a one-month follow-up of physical activity behavior. For belief-behavior relationships, boys had larger correlations for control beliefs about schoolwork, other plans, and weather, compared to girls who reported larger correlations for norms from friends (p < .05). Belief-behavior correlation differences by gender were identified that may signal important tailoring in physical activity interventions for adolescents.