A multi-frame of reference approach to leisure motivation

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David L. Groves
Harvey Kahalas
David Erickson
Cite this article:  Groves, D., Kahalas, H., & Erickson, D. (1975). A multi-frame of reference approach to leisure motivation. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 3(1), 13-26.


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With the increased amount of leisure time and ways to spend it caused by increased automation throughout society, most individuals must facilitate utilization of their time to satisfy individual needs for proper maintenance of mental health. Therefore, the personality and social psychology of the individual within this setting must be examined critically. Research on this subject has been primarily of a descriptive nature, especially with regard to motivation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to lay a more quantitative framework for future research. A unique feature of this study was that it examined leisure from a multi-frame of reference, so that the changes in motivation and its important formative variables can be isolated with regard to content area and utilized to help individuals clarify their position to satisfy individual needs. The results indicate that emotion and involvement are the common elements that are related to leisure needs, and that the relationships among the interacting elements change as the frame of reference shifts.

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