Reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the State Feelings of Fat Scale

Main Article Content

Weizhuo Yuan
Yuan Jiang
Xuan Zhou
Qiuying Lin
Chunchun Chen
Yuxi Lu
Yinji Pu
Junxiao Gui
Cite this article:  Yuan, W., Jiang, Y., Zhou, X., Lin, Q., Chen, C., Lu, Y., Pu, Y., & Gui, J. (2022). Reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the State Feelings of Fat Scale. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 50(11), e12007.


Abstract
Full Text
References
Tables and Figures
Acknowledgments
Author Contact

In this study the State Feelings of Fat Scale (SFF) was translated into Chinese, and its reliability and validity were tested with a sample of 539 Chinese female undergraduates. Participants completed the Chinese version of the SFF Scale, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Social Physique Anxiety Scale, the General Physical Self-Worth Scale, and the attraction body subscale of the Physical Self-Perception Profile. These variables and body mass index were selected as criterion measurements. Two weeks later, 94 participants were recalled to respond to the SFF Scale again. The results of factor analysis supported the unidimensional structure model. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was .87 and the test–retest reliability was .91. The total score for the SFF Scale exhibited a significant correlation with all the criteria. It can be concluded that the Chinese version of the SFF Scale has good reliability and validity and can be used in correlational studies.

Eating disorders are psychological disorders characterized by abnormal eating behavior, and mainly include anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. These eating disorders can readily become chronic and have a high mortality rate. They are common in women, mostly in economically developed areas, and the high-risk age group for developing the disorders is 13 to 24 years (Huang et al., 2019; Mitchell & Crow, 2006). With the improvement of the material living standard in China, individuals are paying increasingly more attention to their body image and are now more inclined than they were previously to pursue a lower body weight and less body fat through dieting and other behaviors (Qian & Liu, 2002). Thus, the incidence of eating disorders and the number of individuals with subclinical eating disorders in China have increased (Jiang et al., 2008; Peng et al., 2022; Yan et al., 2020). Among Chinese female college students, the phenomena of dieting and overeating caused by dissatisfaction with their body shape have been found to be very common. In a sample of 201 female undergraduates, 20.4% reported that they dieted sometimes, with 3.5% being likely to diet at any time (Qian & Liu, 2002). In another sample of 352 female undergraduates, Fu et al. (2005) found that 58.3% had a history of binge eating and 67.5% felt regret after overeating. For these two groups in Fu et al.’s study, the rates of detection of eating disorders were 4.98% and 2.80%, respectively.

Research findings have shown that eating disorders cause negative effects and are associated with the preoccupation with body image (Levine & Piran, 2004; Tasca & Balfour, 2014). Clinically, even if their body weight is in the normal range, people with eating disorders frequently have feelings of being fat and experience an intense fear of this (Byrne et al., 2011; Linardon et al., 2018; Major et al., 2019; Messer & Linardon, 2021). Linardon et al. (2018) found that for people diagnosed with an eating disorder, scores for the item “I feel fat” in the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994) were highly correlated with scores for the restraint and eating concern subscales of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Therefore, some scholars believe that feelings of fat is the core psychopathology of eating disorders (Mehak & Racine, 2021; Y. Y. Zhang et al., 2021).

Feelings of fat (FF) refers to individuals’ subjective perception about their body fat, which is a complex combination of several factors, such as a negative sense of self, feeling out of control, and coping with feeling fat (Major et al., 2019). FF is a complex mechanism that has many influencing factors and that can fluctuate rapidly in a short period (Cooper et al., 2007). It is related to the objective fat level of an individual and is affected by negative feelings (e.g., depression, anxiety, boredom), physical feelings (e.g., satiety), and the cultural environment (Li, 2018; Y. Y. Zhang et al., 2021). In a cultural environment in which thinness is considered beautiful, individuals with high FF tend to evaluate their body shape negatively, and thus have lower body self-esteem and a higher tendency to have an eating disorder. Moreover, they tend to feel more ashamed and more anxious than their peers do in social situations in which other people observe and evaluate their body shape (Linardon et al., 2018). In the research to date there has been a lack of effective direct measurement tools, so FF has mainly been measured indirectly through variables such as social physique anxiety, physical self-perception, and eating disorders. Y. Y. Zhang et al. (2021) developed a seven-item, single-dimension scale to measure state feelings of fat (SFF) and tested its reliability and validity with a sample of 215 Australian female undergraduates at the University of Sydney and the University of New South Wales. The results suggested it has good reliability and validity and represents most of the contents measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire.

At present, though there are many studies on eating disorders in China, little attention has been paid to the effect of FF on the core psychopathology of eating disorders, and measurement tools for use in the cultural context of China are particularly lacking. We aimed to introduce the SFF Scale into the Chinese context, verify its reliability and validity with Chinese female college students, and provide a reliable and effective evaluation tool for Chinese studies on FF. Following previous studies, body mass index (BMI), social physique anxiety, physical self-perception, and eating disorders were selected as the criteria for assessing the Chinese version of the SFF Scale.

Method

Participants and Procedure

This study was approved by the Committee on Human Experimentation at Chengdu University. A convenience sampling method was used. We distributed survey forms to 569 Chinese female college students at Chengdu University and 565 were returned. Forms with a large number of items unanswered or with evident response patterns were excluded from the analysis, so that 539 valid forms were used in the data analysis. The participants whose questionnaires were valid had a BMI of 19.62 ± 2.30 and had a mean age of 19.92 years (SD = 1.22). Among the women, 44.90% were majoring in liberal arts and 55.10% were majoring in science. Their specific majors included education, law, and architecture. We recalled 94 of the students for retesting after 2 weeks. They completed the survey as a group in a classroom environment and each received a pen as compensation for their participation. They were told about the aim and methods of the study and their rights and obligations before they signed an informed consent form.

Measures

The Chinese Version of the State Feelings of Fat Scale

The steps for the translation of the SFF Scale were as follows: First, forward translation was carried out, in which the original version was independently translated into Chinese by one professor and four postgraduate students majoring in English or psychology. The forward translation was then synthesized and revised. Back-translation was then carried out, during which two professional interpreters independently translated the synthesized Chinese version back into English, and two English experts then compared the accuracy of the back-translated English version to that of the original. The resulting scale was then sent to a translation expert committee for review. The prefinal version, which needed to be above 95% in intelligibility, was tested with 18 college students to evaluate the intelligibility of each item (Peng et al., 2021). The Chinese version of the SFF Scale comprises six items (see Appendix) rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree.

Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire

The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (Fairburn et al., 1993; revised by Fairburn & Beglin, 1994), which is based on a semistructured interview scale used to assess the pathological characteristics of eating disorders, consists of 28 items divided across four subscales: restriction, eating concern, shape concern, and weight concern. Sample items include “Have you ever tried to constrain your food intake in order to change your body shape or weight?” (restraint), “Have you ever been explicitly afraid of losing control of your eating?” (eating concern), “Have you ever felt fat?” (shape concern), and “Have you ever had a burning desire to lose weight?” (weight concern). Participants respond to each item using a 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = never or not at all to 7 = every day or significantly. Gu et al. (2017) translated the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire into Chinese and tested its reliability and validity. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the restriction, eating concern, shape concern, and weight concern subscales in our study were .84, .79, .87, and .81, respectively.

Social Physique Anxiety Scale

The Social Physique Anxiety Scale, developed by Hart et al. (1989), consists of 15 items, six of which are reverse-scored, divided across three subscales: worry about others’ negative evaluation, discomfort about physique self-presentation, and anxiety about social comparison. Sample items are “When wearing a thin robe or bathing suit, I worry that others might make negative comments about my body shape or physique” (worry about others’ negative evaluation), “I always feel uneasy and self-conscious when it comes to showing others my body shape or physique” (discomfort about physique self-presentation), and “I feel uneasy and worried when clothes don’t look good on me but look good on someone with a better body shape or physique” (anxiety about social comparison). Participants respond to each item using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Xu et al. (2003) translated the Social Physique Anxiety Scale into Chinese and tested its reliability and validity. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the worry, discomfort, and anxiety subscales in this study were .83, .68, and .74, respectively.

Physical Self-Perception Profile

The Physical Self-Perception Profile developed by Fox (1990) consists of 30 items, 15 of which are reverse-scored. It comprises one main scale (general physical self-worth) and four subscales, each with six items: sport competence, condition, body, and strength. To fit the purpose of this research we used the main scale of general physical self-worth and the subscale of body. Sample items include “I have an attractive body compared to most people” (body) and “I’m incredibly proud of my body shape and physical abilities” (general physical self-worth). Participants respond to each item using a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 4 = strongly agree. Xu et al. (2001) translated the Physical Self-Perception Profile into Chinese and tested its reliability and validity. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the general physical self-worth scale and the body subscale in our study were .71 and .72, respectively.

Body Mass Index

The BMI is an index commonly used to measure the degree of body fat, for which the computational formula is as follows: BMI (kg/m2) = weight (kg) ÷ height (m2). As FF is a kind of body image comprising individuals’ subjective perception about their body fat based in a way on objective weight (J. Zhang & Chen, 2017), responses given on an effective scale to measure FF should correlate with BMI to some extent.

Data Analysis

Descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factor analysis were performed with SPSS 21.0 and Amos 26.0 software.

Results

Factor Analysis

The data were randomly divided into Group 1 (n = 269) and Group 2 (n = 269), of which Group 1 was used for EFA. The result of a Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin test for sampling adequacy was .85 and the Bartlett’s test of sphericity result was 997.96 (df = 21, p < .01), indicating that the data were suitable for EFA. Parallel analysis was used to determine the specific number of factors and the results showed that there were two factors with eigenvalues greater than 1. The 95% quantile value and mean value of the random sample eigenvalue of the first factor were less than the real sample eigenvalue, but the mean value of the random sample eigenvalue of the second factor and the 95% quantile value were larger than the real sample eigenvalue, indicating that one factor should be reserved, as shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Comparison of Eigenvalues Between Real and Random Samples

Table/Figure

Note. N = 269.

EFA was performed again on Group 1 data and the number of factors was limited to one. One item (“I feel that my stomach is distended”) was deleted because the factor loading was below .30. We carried out another EFA on the remaining six items and obtained factor loadings above .30, explaining 61.28% of the total variance, as shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Item Analysis of the State Feelings of Fat Scale

Table/Figure
Note. SFF = State Feelings of Fat Scale
** p < .01.

Item Analysis

To analyze the items we used two methods: (a) the relationship between the score for each item of the SFF Scale and the total scale score, and (b) sorting participants according to the top and bottom 27% of total scores, which were categorized as high score and low score, respectively. The results (see Table 2) show that the correlation coefficient between the total score and item score ranged from .45 to .90 (p < .01), and there was a significant difference between the high-score and low-score groups in terms of the score for each item (p < .01), indicating appropriate discrimination of all items.

Reliability Analysis

Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was .87. We recalled 94 participants for retesting and obtained a test–retest reliability coefficient of .91.

Validity Analysis

Group 2 was used for confirmatory factor analysis and a single-factor model was constructed based on the result of the EFA. The results (see Figure 1) show that the single-factor model fit the data well, chi square/degrees of freedom = 1.41, p < .01; normed fit index = .99, comparative fit index = .99, incremental fit index = .99, Tucker–Lewis index = .99, root mean square error of approximation = .023.

Table/Figure

Figure 1. One-Dimensional Model of the State Feelings of Fat Scale

Correlation analysis was performed on the total score of the SFF Scale and the score for each measure selected as a criterion for our study, and the results are shown in Table 3. SFF Scale scores were significantly and negatively correlated with the scores for two of the subscales of the Physical Self-Perception Profile (rs = −.47 and −.54, p < .01). They were also found to be significantly and positively correlated with scores for BMI, the total scale and four subscales of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, and the total scale and three subscales of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (r = .30–.62, p < .01).

Table 3. Correlation Analysis Between State Feelings of Fat Scale and Each Criterion Measure

Table/Figure
Note. N = 539. SFF = State Feelings of Fat Scale; SPAS = Social Physique Anxiety Scale; EDE-Q = Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire; BMI = body mass index.
**p < .01.

Discussion


We translated and revised the SFF Scale and carried out tests of item analysis and reliability and validity. The factor analysis results show that the Chinese version of the SFF Scale has the same one-dimensional structure as the original scale, with six of the items retained (Y. Y. Zhang et al., 2021). The results of our analysis demonstrate that the scores for each item of the Chinese version of the SFF Scale were significantly correlated with the total score, and there were significant differences between the high and low item scores, indicating that each item has proper discrimination. The reliability analysis results show that the SFF Scale is characterized by good stability and internal consistency.

We deleted the item “I feel that my stomach is distended” from the original scale because of low factor loading, and there are two possible reasons for this loading result. First, the cultural environment in which the study was conducted may differ from that in which the scale was developed. People from Eastern and Western cultures have different ways of thinking and interpreting the meaning of the items. Second, there may be a problem with the item itself. Perception of stomach distension and contraction is one of the factors affecting FF. When individuals feel that their stomach is distended, they tend to report high FF. However, there are many factors affecting stomach distension, such as stomach function and diet, so it is difficult to infer individual FF by measuring stomach distension.

We used measures of BMI, disordered eating, social physique anxiety, and physical self-perception as criteria to test the Chinese version of the SFF Scale. Previous studies have shown that in a cultural environment where thinness is considered the ideal beauty standard, individuals who have more body fat than their peers tend to have higher FF, be more likely to develop an eating disorder, have greater social physique anxiety, and have a less positive physical self-perception (Linardon et al., 2018; Wei et al., 2011). Consistent with previous studies, we found a significant negative correlation between scores on the SFF Scale and the two subscales of the Physical Self-Perception Profile, and significant positive correlations among the scores for BMI, the four dimensions of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, and the three dimensions of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale. This indicates that the SFF Scale has strong criterion validity. On the other hand, the high correlation between the Chinese version of the SFF Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire further supports the view that FF is the core of the psychopathology of eating disorders (Y. Y. Zhang et al., 2021). This view is of great significance for the auxiliary diagnosis of eating disorders and relevant studies. Previously, FF was mostly measured indirectly via social physique anxiety and other variables that are stable and tend not to change within a short time period. Conversely, as an individual’s subjective perception, FF is a state variable susceptible to emotions and other factors (Byrne et al., 2011; Peng et al., 2018). On the other hand, the relationship between these indirectly measured variables and FF may change according to the cultural environment and an individual’s ideas. Therefore, to measure FF directly and more accurately, the SFF has important value in practical applications.

A limitation to our study is that our sample comprised only female undergraduates from Sichuan Province, China. Their age, occupation, and cultural background were similar, which may have affected the accuracy and generalizability of the results. Despite this limitation, the Chinese version of the SFF Scale shows good reliability and validity and can be used in subsequent studies to measure FF.

References

Byrne, S. M., Fursland, A., Allen, K. L., & Watson, H. (2011). The effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: An open trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(4), 219–226.
 
Cooper, M. J., Deepak, K., Grocutt, E., & Bailey, E. (2007). The experience of ‘feeling fat’ in women with anorexia nervosa, dieting and non‐dieting women: An exploratory study. European Eating Disorders Review: The Professional Journal of the Eating Disorders Association, 15(5), 366–372.
 
Fairburn, C. G., & Beglin, S. J. (1994). Assessment of eating disorders: Interview or self-report questionnaire? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16(4), 363–370.
 
Fairburn, C. G., Cooper, Z., & O’Connor, M. (1993). The Eating Disorder Examination. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6, 1–8.
 
Fox, K. R., & Corbin, C. B. (1989). The Physical Self-Perception Profile: Development and preliminary validation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 408–430.
 
Fu, D. D., Wang, J. P., Chen, W., & Bi, Y. (2005). Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors and related mood states among female university students in Beijing [In Chinese]. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 19(8), 525–528.
 
Gu, L., Chen, J., Huang, Y., Hang, Q., Huang, J. B., He, Y. L., & Xiao, Z. P. (2017). Validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0 in female patients with eating disorders [In Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Mental Health, 31(5), 350–355.
 
Hart, E. A., Leary, M. R., & Rejeski, W. J. (1989). The measurement of social physique anxiety. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 94–104.
 
Huang, Y., Wang, Y. U., Wang, H., Liu, Z., Yu, X., Yan, J., … Lu, J. (2019). Prevalence of mental disorders in China: A cross-sectional epidemiological study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 6(4), Article e11.
 
Jiang, J.-X., Lin, L.-M., Lian, G.-L., & Greiner, T. (2008). Vitamin A deficiency and child feeding in Beijing and Guizhou, China. World Journal of Pediatrics, 4(1), 20–25.
 
Levine, M. P., & Piran, N. (2004). The role of body image in the prevention of eating disorders. Body Image, 1(1), 57–70.
 
Li, Y. (2018). Social anxiety and eating disorder risk among Chinese adolescents: The role of emotional intelligence. School Mental Health, 10(3), 264–274.
 
Linardon, J., Phillipou, A., Castle, D., Newton, R., Harrison, P., Cistullo, L. L., … Brennan, L. (2018). Feeling fat in eating disorders: Testing the unique relationships between feeling fat and measures of disordered eating in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Body Image, 25, 163–167.
 
Major, L., Viljoen, D., & Nel, P. (2019). The experience of feeling fat for women with anorexia nervosa: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. European Journal of Psychotherapy & Counselling, 21(1), 52–67.
 
Mehak, A., & Racine, S. E. (2021). ‘Feeling fat’ is associated with specific eating disorder symptom dimensions in young men and women. Eating and Weight Disorders – Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 26(7), 2345–2351.
 
Messer, M., & Linardon, J. (2021). Exploring the role of feeling fat in individuals categorized with bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder and overweight/obesity. Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 26(8), 2617–2623.
 
Mitchell, J. E., & Crow, S. (2006). Medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19(4), 438–443.
 
Peng, J., Lu, H., Zhang, J., Shao, Y., Wang, L., & Lv, J. (2022). Need for cognition moderates the impairment of decision making caused by nightshift work in nurses. Scientific Reports, 12(1), Article 1756.
 
Peng, J., Xiao, Y., Li, Y., Liang, W., Sun, H., Bao, W., … Wu, S. (2021). Testing the reliability and validity of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale–Short Form with Chinese college students. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 49(7), Article e10400.
 
Peng, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Gong, P., Han, B., Sun, H., … Miao, D. (2018). A new look at the impact of maximizing on unhappiness: Two competing mediating effects. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article 66.
 
Qian, M. Y., & Liu, X. (2002). Dieting and disordered eating among female students in colleges in Beijing [In Chinese]. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 16(11), 753–757.
 
Tasca, G. A., & Balfour, L. (2014). Attachment and eating disorders: A review of current research. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47(7), 710–717.
 
Wei, S., Zhang, S., & Hu, Q. (2011). Resilience and social support as moderators of work stress of young teachers in engineering college. Procedia Engineering, 24, 856–860.
 
Xu, X. (2003). Social physique anxiety in sport and exercise: Preliminary research and instrument development (Unpublished master’s thesis) [In Chinese]. East China Normal University.
 
Xu, X., & Yao, J. X. (2001). Revision and test of the Physical Self-Perception Profile for use with college students [In Chinese]. Sport Science, 21(2), 78–81.
 
Yan, Z., Zhang, G., Cardinal, B. J., & Xu, T. (2020). Body‐related comments experienced by Chinese young women: A cross‐sectional study. Nursing & Health Sciences, 22(2), 300–308.
 
Zhang, J., & Chen, Y. Q. (2017). Influence of obesity on adolescents' body image formation [In Chinese]. China Journal of Health Psychology, 25(8), 1267–1270.
 
Zhang, Y. Y., Burns, B. D., & Touyz, S. (2021). Exploring a core psychopathology in disordered eating: The Feelings of Fat Scale. Journal of Eating Disorders, 9(1), Article 64.

Appendix: The Chinese Version of the State Feelings of Fat Scale

Table/Figure

Byrne, S. M., Fursland, A., Allen, K. L., & Watson, H. (2011). The effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: An open trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(4), 219–226.
 
Cooper, M. J., Deepak, K., Grocutt, E., & Bailey, E. (2007). The experience of ‘feeling fat’ in women with anorexia nervosa, dieting and non‐dieting women: An exploratory study. European Eating Disorders Review: The Professional Journal of the Eating Disorders Association, 15(5), 366–372.
 
Fairburn, C. G., & Beglin, S. J. (1994). Assessment of eating disorders: Interview or self-report questionnaire? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16(4), 363–370.
 
Fairburn, C. G., Cooper, Z., & O’Connor, M. (1993). The Eating Disorder Examination. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6, 1–8.
 
Fox, K. R., & Corbin, C. B. (1989). The Physical Self-Perception Profile: Development and preliminary validation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 408–430.
 
Fu, D. D., Wang, J. P., Chen, W., & Bi, Y. (2005). Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors and related mood states among female university students in Beijing [In Chinese]. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 19(8), 525–528.
 
Gu, L., Chen, J., Huang, Y., Hang, Q., Huang, J. B., He, Y. L., & Xiao, Z. P. (2017). Validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0 in female patients with eating disorders [In Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Mental Health, 31(5), 350–355.
 
Hart, E. A., Leary, M. R., & Rejeski, W. J. (1989). The measurement of social physique anxiety. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 94–104.
 
Huang, Y., Wang, Y. U., Wang, H., Liu, Z., Yu, X., Yan, J., … Lu, J. (2019). Prevalence of mental disorders in China: A cross-sectional epidemiological study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 6(4), Article e11.
 
Jiang, J.-X., Lin, L.-M., Lian, G.-L., & Greiner, T. (2008). Vitamin A deficiency and child feeding in Beijing and Guizhou, China. World Journal of Pediatrics, 4(1), 20–25.
 
Levine, M. P., & Piran, N. (2004). The role of body image in the prevention of eating disorders. Body Image, 1(1), 57–70.
 
Li, Y. (2018). Social anxiety and eating disorder risk among Chinese adolescents: The role of emotional intelligence. School Mental Health, 10(3), 264–274.
 
Linardon, J., Phillipou, A., Castle, D., Newton, R., Harrison, P., Cistullo, L. L., … Brennan, L. (2018). Feeling fat in eating disorders: Testing the unique relationships between feeling fat and measures of disordered eating in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Body Image, 25, 163–167.
 
Major, L., Viljoen, D., & Nel, P. (2019). The experience of feeling fat for women with anorexia nervosa: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. European Journal of Psychotherapy & Counselling, 21(1), 52–67.
 
Mehak, A., & Racine, S. E. (2021). ‘Feeling fat’ is associated with specific eating disorder symptom dimensions in young men and women. Eating and Weight Disorders – Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 26(7), 2345–2351.
 
Messer, M., & Linardon, J. (2021). Exploring the role of feeling fat in individuals categorized with bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder and overweight/obesity. Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 26(8), 2617–2623.
 
Mitchell, J. E., & Crow, S. (2006). Medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19(4), 438–443.
 
Peng, J., Lu, H., Zhang, J., Shao, Y., Wang, L., & Lv, J. (2022). Need for cognition moderates the impairment of decision making caused by nightshift work in nurses. Scientific Reports, 12(1), Article 1756.
 
Peng, J., Xiao, Y., Li, Y., Liang, W., Sun, H., Bao, W., … Wu, S. (2021). Testing the reliability and validity of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale–Short Form with Chinese college students. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 49(7), Article e10400.
 
Peng, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Gong, P., Han, B., Sun, H., … Miao, D. (2018). A new look at the impact of maximizing on unhappiness: Two competing mediating effects. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article 66.
 
Qian, M. Y., & Liu, X. (2002). Dieting and disordered eating among female students in colleges in Beijing [In Chinese]. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 16(11), 753–757.
 
Tasca, G. A., & Balfour, L. (2014). Attachment and eating disorders: A review of current research. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47(7), 710–717.
 
Wei, S., Zhang, S., & Hu, Q. (2011). Resilience and social support as moderators of work stress of young teachers in engineering college. Procedia Engineering, 24, 856–860.
 
Xu, X. (2003). Social physique anxiety in sport and exercise: Preliminary research and instrument development (Unpublished master’s thesis) [In Chinese]. East China Normal University.
 
Xu, X., & Yao, J. X. (2001). Revision and test of the Physical Self-Perception Profile for use with college students [In Chinese]. Sport Science, 21(2), 78–81.
 
Yan, Z., Zhang, G., Cardinal, B. J., & Xu, T. (2020). Body‐related comments experienced by Chinese young women: A cross‐sectional study. Nursing & Health Sciences, 22(2), 300–308.
 
Zhang, J., & Chen, Y. Q. (2017). Influence of obesity on adolescents' body image formation [In Chinese]. China Journal of Health Psychology, 25(8), 1267–1270.
 
Zhang, Y. Y., Burns, B. D., & Touyz, S. (2021). Exploring a core psychopathology in disordered eating: The Feelings of Fat Scale. Journal of Eating Disorders, 9(1), Article 64.

Table 1. Comparison of Eigenvalues Between Real and Random Samples

Table/Figure

Note. N = 269.


Table 2. Item Analysis of the State Feelings of Fat Scale

Table/Figure
Note. SFF = State Feelings of Fat Scale
** p < .01.

Table/Figure

Figure 1. One-Dimensional Model of the State Feelings of Fat Scale


Table 3. Correlation Analysis Between State Feelings of Fat Scale and Each Criterion Measure

Table/Figure
Note. N = 539. SFF = State Feelings of Fat Scale; SPAS = Social Physique Anxiety Scale; EDE-Q = Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire; BMI = body mass index.
**p < .01.

Table/Figure

Weizhuo Yuan and Yuan Jiang contributed equally as first authors to this research.

Junxiao Gui, College of Overseas Education, Chengdu University, No. 2025 Chengluo Avenue, Longquanyi District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, People’s Republic of China. Email: [email protected]

Article Details