A suggested modification to Maslow's need hierarchy

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David L. Groves
Harvey Kahalas
David Erickson
Cite this article:  Groves, D., Kahalas, H., & Erickson, D. (1975). A suggested modification to Maslow's need hierarchy. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 3(1), 65-70.


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Since its development, Maslow’s need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This hierarchy has been primarily used in the development of theory. Problems in its operational use have been caused by the upper levels in the hierarchy, particularly the self-actualization category. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of “other directed.”

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