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We examined the relationship between mindfulness and posttraumatic growth (PTG) of a group of 315 Chinese adults who had been diagnosed with cancer. We proposed self-compassion and cognitive reappraisal as mediators between mindfulness and PTG. Participants completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, Self-Compassion Scale, Emotion Regulation Questionnaires, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Analysis revealed significant positive correlations among mindfulness, self-compassion, cognitive reappraisal, and PTG. Mindfulness played a positive role in improving PTG of people with cancer, and self-compassion and cognitive reappraisal played mediating roles in the relationship between mindfulness and PTG. This finding may help to further understand the mechanism of PTG and suggests that, as mindfulness promotes self-compassion and cognitive reappraisal, which are both important for PTG of people with cancer, future interventions should integrate into their treatment training to improve levels of mindfulness.